The 3rd Islamic Trust Studies International Conference
“Exploring the Tacit Knowledge of Trust Building and Connectivity amidst Predicaments”
MEXT Grant-in Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A)
“Connectivity and Trust Building in Islamic Civilization”(Islamic Trust Studies)
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that more than 100 million people worldwide are currently forcibly displaced. The number of migrants has also increased globally; the International Organization for Migration reported 281 million international migrations in 2020. Many such migrants have abandoned their homes in hardship circumstances. Remarkably, Muslims constitute a major proportion of international migrations, reflecting political, economic, and social instabilities and frequent violent conflicts in their native regions. Domestic deportations and massive imprisonments are also widely observed in highly authoritarian and/or war-torn countries.
We tend to regard such people as disconnected and bereft of trust in others. Their reconstruction appears difficult in their destination societies and their renewed environments, within which they are often discriminated against and alienated. Unforced migrants confront relatively similar problems in their home countries and in the unfamiliar nations in which they resettle.
However, even in these dire predicaments or precarious situations, people find some individuals who intervene between them and their surrounding societies. Such third parties usually function as mediators. Nonetheless, the constituents of either or both opposing parties or origin or destination communities can sometimes attempt to negotiate between the two societies, taking advantage of their connectivity-related attributes such as multiple belongings, marginality, multilingualism, spiritual or religious authority, or mere enthusiasm. Such intervenors initially create interaction spaces before attempting to find bargaining points. Intermediaries are precariously positioned: their stations fluctuate in their unstable and entangled relationships with migrants . Trust and mistrust in their services are occasionally interchanged. Those endeavoring to discharge critical roles may consciously or unconsciously adopt some risk: for instance, to their reputation, social status, wealth, security, or even lives. Mediation does not necessarily succeed, and trust building is always subject to contingencies.
Most existing studies of forced migration and violent conflicts have focused on the destructive side of phenomena: their causes, processes, and/or consequences. Without disregarding such studies, we will highlight roles enacted by intermediaries and the spaces they create, attending especially to the tacit knowledge they use in delicate situations. We could detect rhizomes of tacit knowledge that connect to the more common spheres of the daily experiences of people by exploring diverse cases of forced migration, violent conflicts, and other types of unwilling relocations. The implications of our study will shed new light on the connectivities and trust-building activities by/for people caught in predicaments related to forced migrations and conflicts.
Day 1: Friday 1 March 2024, 15:00–20:00
Moderator: Nobuaki Kondo (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
Hidemitsu Kuroki, Representative of the Islamic Trust Studies (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies/Hokkaido University)
Introduction: Conference objective
Masako Ishii, Co-Organizer (Rikkyo University)
Keynote Speech Chair: Hidemitsu Kuroki (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies/Hokkaido University)
Ussama Makdisi (University of California, Berkeley)
“Connections and coexistence in an Age of Genocide”
This talk delves into the intersection of a complex, and now obscured, modern culture of coexistence in the Middle East with a relentless late Western colonialism inaugurated after WWI. In particular, the presentation focuses on the fate of an American-led commission of inquiry known as the King-Crane Commission that was sent by the League of Nations in 1919 to investigate how peoples of the region wanted to determine their own political future. As such, the work of this commission provide a window into a world that was just consolidating a profoundly new form of coexistence and yet was about to be subjugated to a methodical policy of European-led sectarianization and colonization in the name of self-determination and religious freedom.
Discussant: Hiroyuki Suzuki (The University of Tokyo)
Lecture and demonstration: “Jiutamai”
“Peace-building and Connectivity through Classical Japanese Dance: Jiutamai Dance Performance Tied with Palestinian Embroidery”
Talk and dance performance: Yukino Hanasaki (Tomoko Murase) (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
Music performance: Nao Ohara
Welcoming banquet at the restaurant “Lever son verre Komaba”
Day 2: Saturday 2 March 2024, 10:00–19:30
Moderator: Jin Noda (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
Session 1: “With whom do you connect? Intermediaries in (forced-) migratory and settlement processes”
Chair: Masako Kudo (J. F. Oberlin University)
Discussant: Hideaki Sekino (Meiji University)
Khatchig Mouradian (The Library of Congress/Columbia University)
“‘Defend them as you would defend yourselves and your children’: Connectivity, Mutual Aid, and Resistance in Ottoman Syria”
This paper explores the role of an underground network in Ottoman Syria that resisted the destruction of the Armenian people during World War I. I argue that despite the violent and systematic mechanisms of control and destruction in this region, the genocide of the Armenians did not progress unhindered — unarmed resistance proved an important factor in saving lives and laying the groundwork for postwar rebuilding. I demonstrate how t he enormity of Armenian suffering and need necessitated, and galvanized, a collaborative approach to relief and unarmed resistance in the region. Many Aleppians set confessional and religious differences aside as they networked to assist deportees arriving in Ottoman Syria who, by early 1916, numbered around half a million. The city’s Armenian churches coordinated efforts and received assistance and support from other Christians, as well as from leaders and members of the city’ s Muslim and Jewish communities. When the central authorities cracked down on the effort, these actors went underground and continued their work clandestinely.
Scholarship on the wartime Western humanitarian efforts largely misses the connections forged with local Christians and Muslims, and the central role Ottoman subjects themselves played in the humanitarian work. These local actors not only launched an extensive mutual aid effort months before relief funds started flowing from the United States and Europe, but also took upon themselves dangerous task s such as distributing aid beyond the reach of consuls and missionaries, securing safe houses and provisions, as well as helping deportees evade or escape redeportation, internment, forced labor, and sexual slavery. These efforts saved the lives of thousands of Armenian deportees in Ottoman Syria during World War I.
Tetsuya Sahara (Meiji University)
“Grass-roots Solidarity versus State Control: Refugees and Bordering Regions in Turkey and Greece”
Since the Refugee Crisis in 2015, the EU has been beefing up its border control in contravention of the European Convention on Human Rights. Now on the agenda are the institutionalization of concentration camps and push-backs, out-sourcing of screening processes, and stamping out of NGOs. A pilot project has already been launched on the Greek-Turkish border. For all the brutal implementation of those measures, flows of migrants and refugees has not waned. A part of the reason can be found in the socio-cultural climates inherent in the bordering regions. People are doing their best, even at the risk of judicial punishment, to mitigate the sufferings of those who have fled their home in search of better life. It is pointed out that what motivates them is a sense of solidarity rather than the officialized humanitarianism. Taking the example of three bordering regions, I discuss their recalcitrant spirits root in the long-oppressed resentment at the callousness of the nation state that had culminated in the population exchange in the 1920s.
Susumu Nejima (Toyo University)
“Masjid Otsuka: Trust Building with Japanese People through Volunteer Activities”
Masjid Otsuka, located in Toshima Ward, Tokyo, is one of the best-known mosques in Japan (Currently there are about 180 mosques in the country) . Since its foundation in 2000, many researchers and journalists have been writing articles about its volunteer activities such as the 2011 Fukushima relief material distribution, and meal distribution for homeless in Toshima Ward. Although Japanese people living around Masjid Otsuka were at first skeptical about their activities, they changed their mind after participating Muslims’ selfless hard works for the tsunami affected people in Fukushima. Since then, Masjid Otsuka has established an International Islamic school, Halal Certificate Office, and started overseas projects in Sri Lanka, Syria, and Yemen. They are also managing a graveyard in Ibaraki Prefecture (60km from Tokyo). In fact, Masjid Otsuka sometimes faces difficulties to maintain these activities. But they are able to continue as Japanese who are for multicultural coexistence support the activities. In this presentation, the author explains that how this trust building has been taking roots in contemporary Japan.
Short presentation & Poster session
Noor J. E. Abushammalah (Kyushu University)
“Diasporas at a Crossroad: Silence or Activism?”
In today’s interconnected world, technology, and social media have made it possible for diasporic communities to maintain ties with their countries of origin while preserving their unique identities. However, this level of connectivity has also brought about a set of challenges imposed by home country regimes seeking to exert control over their diaspora across borders. Moreover, host countries may indirectly or directly hinder diaspora social mobilization, as loyalty is expected towards the ‘new home country’. Therefore, diaspora groups are faced with two choices: either remain silent and cut ties with their home countries or use their resources to bring about change in their countries of origin. Given this complex situation, how can the diaspora navigate these challenges, and what steps should host countries and non-state actors take to protect diaspora groups and support their activism?
Han Hsien Liew (Arizona State University)
“Redeeming the Political Sphere: Ibn al-Jawzi’s Reassessment of Ruler-Scholar Relations”
The relationship between rulers and religious scholars became increasingly fraught during the twelfth century. This period witnessed the peak of the Abbasid-Seljuq conflict as the Abbasid caliphs and the Seljuq sultans allied themselves with different groups of scholars to further their respective political causes, only to dissolve the alliance when the political climate changed. Due to these volatile political developments , many scholars discouraged their peers from associating with rulers and politics to avoid being intoxicated by power. Al-Ghazali (d. 1111), for instance, condemns scholars who associate with rulers and deploys a string of hadiths that deem such scholars to be destined for hellfire.
This paper examines an intervention in this debate by the twelfth-century scholar-preacher Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 1201). It argues that, unlike his peers who adopt a cynical view of ruler-scholar relations, Ibn al-Jawzi envisions a greater role for scholars in political reform. For instance, he asserts that the general good to be gained from counseling rulers far outweighs the harms related to the moral temptations of the ruler’s court. Scholars who visit rulers with the sincere intention to reform them have the potential to benefit an entire society if they can successfully guide rulers to govern justly. By studying Ibn al-Jawzi’s political discourses, this paper sheds light on the various ways in which medieval Muslim scholars envisioned connectivity and relationships between the political and intellectual classes.
Sayoko Numata (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
“’Overall, we are international.’: Rethinking Narratives by East Asian-born Tatar Migrants and their Connectivity”
There appears to be no problem in concluding that the migration and adaptation to Turkey of East Asian-born Tatar migrants was the result of their proactively working to create a relationship with Turkey based on religious and ethnic familiarity. However, what does it mean to develop relationships proactively? From what standpoint does the author interpret their behaviour as proactive? In this presentation, the author, who is on the side of listening to and writing about the experiences, is also a subject of analysis, considering that the interview is an interactive act. The reality of the Tatar migrants’ connectivity is not limited to working based on their feelings for Turkey. Instead, we can see proactive relationship-building in how the Tatar migrants relativise the author’s questions that attempt to impose their experiences into the framework of nation-states. Describing themselves as ‘international’ opens up new horizons against the supremacy of nation-states in migrant studies.
Peter Good (University of Kent)
“The Indian Ocean Trade in Persian Wine: New Perspectives on Cultural Exchange”
In 1708, Queen Anne of Great Britain was presented with a distinctive and rare gift; a luminous blue bottle filled with wine from the Shah of Persia. The bottle, with a distinctive tulip shape and long neck carried both liquid and a cultural heritage celebrated in all facets of Persian artistic life from poetry to painted miniatures. Wine from Persia was an important export commodity for the Safavid Empire, while also forming one of the pillars of the trade carried out by European trading companies and local merchants alike. In this paper, I will explore some of my preliminary findings from my two-year JSPS funded project concerning the history of Persian wine as a cultural vector and trade good. Using images of objects, artworks and archival material, I will show how Persian wine represented an important part of Safavid “soft power” and how its trade was used by Europeans to tap into the rich cultural cache of the product, as well as its financial value.
Kaori Otsuya (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
“Circulation of Arabic Manuscripts on the History of Mecca and Medina in South Asia from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century”
Starting from the fifteenth century, South Asia and the Red Sea region became more closely connected to each other. South Asian Muslims migrated to Mecca and Medina, while Hijazi scholars traveled to South Asia and enjoyed patronage at local courts. In recent years, researchers have shown a growing interest in intellectual relationships between the two regions.
This paper provides an outline of my new project, which focuses on intellectual interactions between South Asia and the Red Sea region from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century. Although recent studies have indicated the significant role played by the Arabic language in transregional cultural exchanges, the circulation of Arabic manuscripts on the history of the Hijaz has not been closely examined yet. My project aims to explore cultural interactions between the two regions, analyzing Arabic manuscripts of historical, topographical, and biographical works on Mecca and Medina, preserved in Indian libraries.
Yuta Arai (Kyoto University)
“How to Translate Different Cultures? Ibn Khaldūn and al-Maqrīzī on Western History”
How did Arab-Muslim historians recognize and describe the others, chronologically, regionally, linguistically, and culturally different peoples? Generally, European history had less weight than Persian and Turkish history, which were also included in the Islamicate world, in pre-modern Arabic historiography. However, some Arab historians attempted to construct a comprehensive European history in their historical writings.
In the case of Ibn Khaldūn, he attempted to describe the Latins and the Greeks as dominant nations of the old ages in his universal history, Kitāb al- ʻibar. Ibn Khaldūn interpreted human history as a process of transition of sovereignty and placed the ancient Europeans in this process. al-Maqrīzī, one of the significant Egyptian historians and Ibn Khaldūn’s disciple, also attempted to describe ancient and contemporary European history in his universal history al-Khabar ʻan al-bashar , based on various sources including Ibn Khaldūn’s Kitāb al- ʻibar . In these historical writings, both historians translate European concepts and history in their unique ways.
Sachiko Nakano (Yamaguchi University)
“Trust Building and Connectivity between Muslim Refugees and the Japanese in Interpersonal Relationships: Perspectives from the Japanese as guarantor for a refugee”
This study aimed to explore trust building between Muslim refugees in Japan and local people who assist them from the Japanese perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Japanese guarantors and teachers responsible for refugee students’ compulsory education to explore not only how trust was built but also their perceptions, feelings, and behaviors during acceptance and life support. The results revealed that in the decision-making stage of acceptance, “previous trust” and “life threats” were associated with acceptance decision, as well as “having the experience and skills of what to do in dealing with Muslims and foreigners.” Furthermore, Japanese guarantors not only built trust between individuals but also established quality support networks by connecting with others. Furthermore, they attempted to create a place for Muslims by connecting Muslim refugees and Japanese society.
Alaa ElSharqawy (Cairo University)
“Postwar (pre-oil shock) Japanese perception of Islam and modernity (Egypt as an example)”
Most of the research about the postwar Japanese perception of the Middle East/Arab region, focuses on the petroleum/oil shock which started in the fall of 1973 with the third war in the middle east. While here, I’m trying to focus on the era before the oil crisis, starting from 1952, and ending before the oil crisis. 1952 is the year of independence in Japan and the beginning of the effort to rebuild foreign relations after the war. While for Egypt and all the region, that period was known as “Nasserist” or “Naseer’s era”, which was the time for the Arab nationalist movement and a modernity project related to it. In that era, there was a Japanese interest in the region in general and Egypt found a way to discuss Islam and the Islamic role in the society, which led to different opinions, especially about the role of Islam with or against modernization, the common manners between Islamic culture and Japanese-specifically Buddhist culture (which was part of introducing the society), and the religious and non-religious society in Egypt as a Muslim country.
The material for this research is based on the Japanese major newspapers, the articles published in Japanese magazines about Egypt as an Islamic society, and the book published about the same topic.
Yuta Hayashi (University of Tokyo)
“Connectivity in Islamic Law: Exploring the Principles of Utilizing Public Goods through the Lens of Medieval Mālikī Jurisprudence”
This poster delves into the evolution of provisions in Mālikī legal texts until the 14th century to unveil how Islamic law regulates equity among individuals utilizing lands or resources characterized by conflicting rights or ambiguous ownership. Focusing on the utilization of public goods as outlined in Islamic law, the analysis goes beyond merely addressing conflicts over these resources, shedding light on provisions that facilitate their continual and harmonious use. By tracing the transformation of regulations in Mālikī legal texts, this study elucidates the nuanced mechanisms through which Islamic law not only navigates conflicts but also fosters an environment conducive to the sustained utilization of public resources. This exploration aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the connectivity inherent in Islamic legal principles related to the utilization of public goods, providing insights into historical perspectives that continue to shape contemporary discourse on resource governance.
Naoko Aiiso (Keio University)
“The experienced mariners as the goveners of Rhodes in the end of 16th century Ottoman Empire”
The development of the naval influence of the Ottoman Empire in the early modern era was achived throught the efforts of experienced mariners called levends like Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha. Not only him, in lower levels, many mariners obtained official positions, such as the sancakbeyi position in the Archipelago provinces. The sancakbeyis of it s also performed the important roll at coastal security as the Derya Beyi ships, it indecates that individuals with exceptional maritime knowledge were prioritized as its candidate.
Therefore, this research focuses on the sancakbeyis of Rhodes to clarify their role as naval forces and the career trends of them. It also tries to examine that the personal networks formed by these governors or corsairs. It gives us the more specific perspection reinforcing the view that the naval power of the Ottoman Empire surported by the conectivities of skilled corsairs.
Haruka Usuki (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
“Connectivity among relatives and families through money transfers: The case of Jordan”
Based on household surveys conducted across Jordan, this poster is intended to examine how money is transferred between relatives and family members, thereby revealing the role that money transfers play in connecting Jordan’s population to their family members and relatives living inside or outside the country. Specifically, the study asks the following questions:
1) Whom did you give the money to and whom did you receive it from (siblings, children, relatives, etc.)?
2) Where did the person who received the money live (within the prefecture, outside the prefecture, or abroad)?
3) For what purpose was the money received (cash gift or financial assistance for living expenses, medical expenses, etc.)?
4) What quantum of money was transferred?
International remittances have a significant impact on Jordan’s national economy, and remittances are often analyzed on a macro level. This poster analyzes money transfers at the micro level (family and kinship) and both domestic and international connections regardless of the amount.
Emiko Sunaga (University of Tokyo)
“Perceptions of Islam in 20th century Japan from the Digital Archive of the National Diet Library”
Digitisation of research materials is progressing rapidly in universities and libraries around the world, as a by-product of Covid-19. The National Diet Library (NDL) in Japan has been involved in the creation of OCR text data for 2.47 million items, including books a nd journals. In this poster presentation, I would like to look at the history of Islam in Japan while introducing the recently released search service of the National Diet Library.
This digital archive can be used to search for Japanese perceptions of Halal, the first ‘haraaru’ written in the katakana in Japanese was a book from 1936. The NDL full-text search provides a direct search of primary information. For example, the text of this document reveals that Halal is explained by citing the Buddhist concept of Nyoho. In addition to this, the use of digital archives will help in terms of access to materials that were difficult to reach from traditional paper sources.
Hitomu Kotani (Kyoto University)
“How did mosques respond to the recent major earthquakes in Japan?”
This study aimed to summarize the short-term (i.e., response) and long-term (i.e., recovery and mitigation) activities of mosques located in areas affected by recent major earthquakes in Japan. We targeted three mosques located in areas affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake in Japan. We conducted a literature review and interviewed mosque administrators. We found that all the mosques worked as distribution centers in the short term, receiving relief supplies from Muslims all over Japan and distributing them to the affected people. The relief goods included halal foods that fit foreign minorities, but these goods were distributed not only to them but also to other people regardless of religion and nationality. Some mosques also functioned as evacuation shelters, soup kitchens, and accommodations for volunteers. In contrast to the short term, we did not find prominent recovery and mitigation activities by the mosques. These findings contribute to promoting inclusive and community-based disaster risk reduction activities.
Natsuko Saji (University of Tokyo), Satoru Nakamura (University of Tokyo)
“Cataloging images of historical materials taken by individual researchers: A case study of Ottoman documents of Bosnia”
We present the process of creating a catalog that links historical document image data and metadata after photographing documents at field surveys. The working process is as follows; ① Place a serial number card next to the document and take a photo to avoid damaging the paper. ② Use OCR to associate the image data with the serial number mechanically. ③ Create a database of the image data and metadata such as serial numbers using Omeka. ④ The catalog will be enriched constantly by reading documents and adding more detailed information such as year of creation, type of document, and names of people and places using TEI markup. By sharing the database among users who can log in with a description of who is responsible for creating the data, it will become a place for joint researchers and other interested users to utilize this historical material.
Erina Ota-Tsukada (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies), Jun Ogawa (University of Tokyo)
“Visualizing the Connectivity of 15th Century Islamic Intellectuals by Using RDF”
Among urban elites in the Arab regions during the 14th-16th centuries, nominal master-disciple relationships were established through the granting and receiving of ijāzas (licenses). What role did these indirect connections built by such licenses, which had no real substance, play in the prosperity of individuals and families?
Information on nominal ijāzas is preserved in the voluminous biographical records of the 15th century. Therefore, in this report, we focus on RDF as a method of distant reading. Based on the digital text of al-Sakhawi’s large biographical record “The Shining Light for the People of the 9th Century,” we extract examples of nominal and large-scale granting of ijāzas (ijāzas of istiduʻāʼ) and convert them into machine-readable data using RDF. Then, by visualizing the connectivity of people in the 15th century based on this practice, we clarify its social role.
Session 2: “Ending impasses? Connectivity amidst conflicts”
Chair: Kazuya Nakamizo (Kyoto University)
Discussant: Shinichi Takeuchi (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
Nurcan Özgür Baklacıoğlu (University of Istanbul)
“Komşi Kapicik: space, connectivity and trustbuilding in divided societies”
Komşi kapicik is a social artchitectural construction that is observable at some traditional Ottoman districts and houses in the Balkans. According to the oral history its construction goes back to the Ottoman Balkan history. However there is no research a bout its existance in the Bizantic times. Komşi Kapıcık is usually observable in the muslim, but also in the mixed mahalla . While modernisation of the cities destroys these traditional constructions, their historical memory and cultural agency presents valuable experience about space and intercultural connectivity, space and identity, as well as space and trustbuilding in conflictural societies.
Komşi kapicik is a concept that is used by all different ethnic and religious groups in former Yugoslavia: Albanian, Turkish, Serbian, Bosnian and Macedonian. It is a social architectural construction created by the local culture, interaction and connectivity and forms a local network of intercultural communication, interaction, negotiation, social learning, culinary exchange, common celebrations of various cultural fests etc. Based on local literature and oral history the paper investigates the function, performances and role of Komshi kapıcık in the survival and peacebuilding within divided societies, such as the mixed mahallas in North Macedonia.
Taberez Ahmad Neyazi (National University of Singapore)
“From Local to Digital: Transforming Resistance and Solidarity in India’s Muslim Struggle Against Hate”
This paper explores the transformation of resistance and solidarity movements in India’s Muslim community, against a backdrop of rising digital hate and misinformation. A report by Hindutva Watch in the first half of 2023 documents a significant rise in anti-Muslim hate speech in India, especially in Bharatiya Janata Party – governed states with upcoming elections, involving 255 incidents that often promoted violence against Muslims. Similarly, “Sulli Deals”, an online application that published photos and personal details of around 100 Muslim women, labeling them as “deals of the day,” shows how the online sphere has been weaponized by vested interests to target and demonize Muslims. This paper situates these developments within the broader theoretical framework of digital activism and identity politics, analyzing how digital spaces not only reflect but also shape communal identities and conflicts. This perspective underscores the unique challenges and opportunities faced by the Indian Muslim community in leveraging digital platforms for resistance and solidarity, linking their local struggle to global patterns of digital activism and highlighting the complex interplay between technology, social movements, and identity politics in the digital era.
Jun Kumakura (Hosei University)
“How China Created the Ethnic Minority Cadres in Xinjiang”
Since the Chinese Communist Party began governing Xinjiang in 1949, it has been working to develop ethnic minority cadres who should be the link between the Party and the local population. But the process of forming ethnic cadres was also a process of ruthlessly disposing of those whom the Party deemed untrustworthy and uniting the selected people around the Party. The ethnic cadres were largely eliminated during the Anti-Rightist Campaign and the Cultural Revolution, and new cadres were appointed. In 2017, many ethnic cadres and local intellectuals were arrested in conjunction with the Anti-Corruption Campaign and mass incarceration of indigenous Muslims. This report analyzes the historical transformation process of ethnic cadres in Xinjiang.
“Information exchange banquet” at The University of Tokyo CO-OP Cafeteria
Day 3: Sunday 3 March 2024, 09:30–12:30
Moderator: Jin Noda (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
Session 3: “Returning to normal? (Mis-)trust building in post-conflict societies”
Chair: Masako Ishii (Rikkyo University)
Discussant: Keiko Sakai (Chiba University)
Matuan Moctar (MARADECA, Inc.), Abdullah Tirmizy (Mindanao State University)
“Loss and Rebuilding of Trust and Connectivity: The Case of the Marawi Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in Mindanao, Philippines”
This research critically examines the multifaceted repercussions of military interventions on social cohesion, centering on the experiences of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) in the aftermath of the 153-day Marawi Siege in Mindanao, Philippines. Driven by the imperative to comprehend t he intricate dynamics of trust and connectivity within the community, the study, conducted by Dr. Moctar I. Matuan, Mobashar Abbas, and Dr. Tirmizy E. Abdullah, scrutinizes the consequences of military actions against extremist endeavors to establish an Islamic State (IS).
The primary objective of the study involves an in-depth exploration of the emotions, beliefs, experiences, and reactions of IDPs in response to military interventions against extremist activities. Through meticulous documentation, the study seeks to elucidate the factors contributing to the subsequent erosion of connectivity and trust within the community. Additionally, the research aims to comprehensively document IDPs’ perspectives on preserving socio-political institutions, striking a delicate balance between the government’s constitutional mandate and the imperative to maintain social harmony.
The second objective entails an examination of how the siege disrupted social cohesion, necessitating the documentation and description of the current status of IDPs residing in various shelter centers. The study places a particular emphasis on their connectivity and trust levels with family/clan, the government, and community leaders. Moreover, the research endeavors to provide a detailed account of initiatives or efforts by family/clan, community leaders, and the government to restore connectivity and trust.
The third and final objective focuses on soliciting ideas for rebuilding lost connectivity and trust. The study aims to compile recommendations directly sourced from IDPs, offering valuable insights into strategies for reclaiming lost connectivity and trust within their community, with the government (including the security sector), and with traditional and religious community leaders.
The research methodology employs a purposive selection of shelter centers, ensuring the willingness of residents to participate. Ten shelters, including one exclusively for the Christian community, were strategically chosen, with sectoral representation in partici pant selection, focusing on community leaders (traditional and religious), women, and youth. Data collection involves Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with a minimum of ten participants per session, supplemented by secondary data.
A total of 106 informants w ere interviewed across temporary and permanent shelters, providing a diverse representation. The research unveils the socio – political aftermath of the Marawi Siege, highlighting the unprecedented destruction of properties and loss of lives. The displacement resulted in the dispersion of residents to various shelters, eroding the socio-political structures deeply entwined with land ownership. The study underscores the inherent challenges faced by IDPs, from the absence of leaders during evacuation to the sub sequent struggles for basic needs.
The significance of this study lies in shedding light on the enduring impact of the Marawi Siege, particularly the loss of connectivity and trust within the community. The findings are poised to offer valuable insights in to strategies for rebuilding trust and connectivity, presenting recommendations directly derived from the perspectives of the affected IDPs. Ultimately, this research serves as a critical exploration into the human and social dimensions of conflict and dis placement, with implications for informing future policy and humanitarian efforts.
Ken Miichi (Waseda University)
“Unraveling Dynamics of Post-Conflict Terrorism: A Case Study in Indonesia”
In societies marked by conflicts among various religious groups, violence often persists in the form of terrorism. Such political actions are typically defined as “to inspire the ‘target’ population with terror, by means of random acts of violence” (Narveson 1991). The prevailing literature on it has focused on ideologies that endorse violence and its Manichean worldview of their enemy. However, due to the periodic boundary shifts between “us” and “them” and state crackdowns, the number of terrorist groups is on the decline in many countries. This paper delves into continuing terrorism in post-conflict societies, with a case study in Indonesia, a country troubled with recurring terrorist attacks. In Indonesia, while many militant groups that formerly engaged in terrorism have abandoned the armed struggle due to the state crackdowns, some groups have continued to engage in terrorism with remarkable persistence in their networking. This paper provides an account of the reasons behind such groups ’ unwavering choice of violent means by scrutinizing intra-group relations.
This paper argues that these groups accentuate their exclusivity towards the out-group foster and in-group unity, and regenerate the causes so that they continuously motivate members to violent attacks.
Dima de Clerck (Université Paris 1/American University of Beirut)
“Post-Civil War Reconciliations and Challenges in Lebanon”
The 16 – year Lebanese War (1975 – 1990) came to an end following a National Reconciliation Agreement signed in Taif , Saudi Arabia in 1989 . In Beirut, divided between east (Christian) and west (Muslim), families fled to escape fighting along the demarcation lines, shelling and the risk of abduction. Israeli aerial bombardments and military invasions in 1978 and 1982 forced hundreds of thousands of people to flee South Lebanon and settle in Beirut and its suburbs. In other cases , people were expelled as sectarian militias cleared areas under their control of potential dissidents . Perpetrated massacres propagated terror and pushed sectarian groups to unite in homogeneous geographic regions. Some 100,000 were killed , al most a million fled the country, a third of the population (more than 800,000 people) were internally displaced and 17,000 persons were officially counted as “disappeared”.
This presentation sheds light on how post-war Lebanese governments have tackled War exit and afermath, the challenges of displacement and reconciliation , the disappeared, as well as peace-keeping , in the context of non – stop international intervention and ongoing wars in the region . The Syrian War added to the political, social and economic challenges as more than 2 million Syrian refugees settled in Lebanon since 2012 .
Yukie Osa (Rikkyo University)
“Bosnian Diaspora’ s political activism and international lobby activities and its influence over homeland peacebuilding”
Today, Bosnian Muslims’ political activism has developed into the transnational political activism targeting entire international community, not limited to the bilateral relationship between home and host countries. As a result of this political activism, whose “connectivity,” ties and trust are strengthened and whose are destroyed to create exclusion and division? How does the political activism of the Bosnian Muslim diaspora affect the peacebuilding in the home country? Can we deduce any lessons to overcome distrust and division, or does it present lessons not to learn?
With these questions in mind, this paper first presents a literature review on diaspora (1), then summarizes the points of dispute and the history of the Bosnian conflict and related atrocities (2). Third, the profile of Bosnian immigrants and refugees is overviewed (3) . Then the ties between Bosnian diaspora and Islam on the atrocities and the peacebuilding in the home country are discussed (4).
Hidemitsu Kuroki (Tokyo University of Foreign Studies/Hokkaido University)
Date and Venue
March 1 (Fri) to 3 (Sun), 2024
The University of Tokyo, Komaba Campus, Building no. 12
3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo
Pre-registration is required.
Registration deadline: Feb. 22, 2024, p. m. 15:00
Grant-in-Aid for Transformative Research Areas (A)
“Migrants, Refugees, and Community Building” (Principal Investigator: Hidemitsu KUROKI (ILCAA/SRC),20H05826)
“Trust and Peace Building in Conflict Affected Areas” (Principal Investigator: Masako ISHII (Rikkyo University), 20H05829)
The University of Tokyo Centre for Middle Eastern Studies (UTCMES)
Islamic Trust Studies: Project Office (connectivity_jimukyoku[at]tufs.ac.jp)